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йCreating and Interpreting Graphs
Name: Karen Ditzler
Topic: Graphing
Content Area: Mathematics
Grade Level: Second
Phase 1: Determine the Relative Advantage
Students need to be able to collect information and use that information to create graphs. They also need to be able to interpret graphs. There are many ways to introduce, practice and reinforce these skills. There are numerous advantages to using a computer program, such as Graph Club. When students create graphs using paper and writing utensils it usually takes a great deal of time. There is also the issue of graphs not being accurate because of how they draw pictures or color in the bars. Using Graph Club allows students to use the data they collected to create graphs that accurately represent the results of their survey. It also allows students to create multiple graphs using the same data. This way students are able to compare different graphs, such as bar graphs, pictographs, line graphs and pie charts. There is also a section for the students to type their questions about the graphs. This way it is neat and easily read by other students and the teacher. Graph Club also allows the students to save their project and post it to a website so that parents and others can see their work. The use of the computers also adds a level of engagement that may not be as high as if it were done using paper/pencil.
Phase 2: Decide on Objectives and Assessments
Objectives
The students will:
write a survey question.
conduct a survey of the students in their class.
enter data to construct graphs.
analyze their graph and write questions about them.
Interpret graphs and answer questions using a variety of graphs produced by classmates.
Assessments
Observation: The teacher will observe students as they move through the activities in order to assess their understanding of the content.
Creation of Graph: The teacher will check the graphs to be sure that the data was added correctly and the graphs reflect the data entered.
Questions: The teacher will assess students' questions that they write about their graphs to be sure they analyzed their data accurately.
Answers: The teacher will check the students' answers to the questions about each graph.
PA Standards
Approaches to Learning
AL 2.1
Demonstrate ability to complete a variety of tasks, activities, projects and experiences.
AL 2.3
Demonstrate ability to maintain focus on a task, question, set of directions or interactions, despite distractions and interruptions.
Mathematics
2.6.A
Formulate and answer questions that can be proven with data (bar graphs, pictographs, tally charts and/or tables).
2.6.B
Interpret, construct and draw conclusions from bar graphs, pictographs, tally charts and/or tables.
Science and Technology
3.7.C.
Identify basic computer operations and concepts.
3.7.D
Use basic computer software.
3.7.E
Identify basic computer communications
Phase 3: Design Integration Strategies
Day 1:
Discuss graphs. Find out what they already know about graphs and charts. What do they look like? Where do you see them? What can they tell you?
Show the students examples of different types of graphs and charts and discuss how to interpret the information given in them.
Introduce the idea of a survey question and brainstorm good survey questions. Ask the class to answer a survey question. (EX.-What is your favorite flavor of ice cream? vanilla, chocolate, cookie dough, cookies and cream, peanut butter ripple, other)
Show the responses using tally marks.
Give students time to write their own survey questions and come up with 5 choices for answers.
Check their questions to be sure that they are appropriate.
Hand out a class list to each student.
Give students instructions to move around the room and ask their survey question to each of the students in the class. After they ask a student, they are to record their tally mark in the correct place and cross off their name on the class list.
Students conduct their surveys.
Day 2:
Revisit the survey that you did as a class the previous day.
Demonstrate, using the infocus machine (with or without the interactive whiteboard), how to use the Graph Club program.
Show students how to open the program, enter their data and create the graphs.
Students input their information and create graphs.
Revisit the graph that was made from the class survey. Discuss what you can tell from the graph. Use vocabulary such as greater, less, more, most, least, all together, difference, etc.
Demonstrate how to use that information to create questions about the graph.
Show students how to add text to their graphing project on Graph Club. Students write three questions about their graph. Teacher record the answers on a answer key. Be sure to label the answers with the title of the graph.
Students save their Graph Club projects.
Day 3
Review how to analyze graphs and answer questions about them. Do a few examples together using the graph from the class survey.
Students open their Graph Club project on the computer. Student take a piece of paper and pencil and move from computer to computer. They write the title of the graph and the answers to the questions that the creator wrote about their graph. This is handed in for assessment purposes.
Project a few of the graphs using the infocus and go over the answers to the questions listed.
Review by asking students to tell what they need to do to create graphs and interpret them.
Phase 4: Prepare the Instructional Environment
Materials
Paper and pencils
Class lists-enough copied for each child
Computers
Graph Club Application installed
Computer connected to a projector with or without an interactive whiteboard
Answer Key for student graph questions (created day 2)
Mode
Whole group and individual work
Special Adaptations
Assignment will be adapted for students to meet their specific needs. Any adaptations listed in IEPs will be carried out.
Software Skills
Students will need to know basic computer functions such as logon, open an application, adding text, saving and printing.
Phase 5: Evaluate and Revise
When using technology in the classroom, teachers need to always be prepared with a Plan B in case there are technical difficulties. If the technology is not working for some reason, the teacher would need to have graph paper and crayons or markers so that the student could create a graph that would show the data from their survey.
During the lesson revisions may need to be made based on the knowledge base of the students and their ability to finish the tasks in the allotted time. Formative assessment is done throughout and may lead the teacher to decide to spend more or less time on a certain component of the lesson.
When the lesson is finished, the teacher must reflect on it. They need to decide if the activity was appropriate and if it truly met the objectives for the lesson. This reflection will be useful in the case that the teacher does this same activity the next year or a similar activity during the current school year.
References:
PA Department of Education. (2008). Second Grade: Pennsylvania Learning Standards for Early Childhood. Retrieved February 20, 2010 from HYPERLINK "http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/standards/8709/standards%2C_assessment_and_curriculum/522220"http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/standards/8709/standards%2c_assessment_and_curriculum/522220
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